Factors Affecting Students’ Perceived Outcomes and Satisfaction in Virtual Classrooms


  • Xiem Thuy Cao National Economics University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • The Doan Truong National Economics University, Hanoi, Vietnam



How to Cite

Cao, X. T., & Truong, T. D. (2022). Factors Affecting Students’ Perceived Outcomes and Satisfaction in Virtual Classrooms. Vietnam Journal of Education, 6(2), 161–171. https://doi.org/10.52296/vje.2022.167


The sudden switch from the traditional face-to-face classroom to a synchronous virtual classroom has been a challenge to universities’ lecturers and students. This study aims to determine factors affecting students’ perceived learning outcomes and satisfaction in the virtual mode of education. The structural equation model-based PLS technology is applied to analyze the relationships between the five factors and perceived learning outcomes and satisfaction of students who participated in online courses at three state universities in Hanoi. The study found four factors that significantly affected the students’ perceived outcomes: assessment, infrastructure, interaction, and self-motivation. Three factors that influence student satisfaction are infrastructure, interaction, and lecturer knowledge and facilitation. The survey was conducted virtually at an unfavorable time so the majority of survey respondents were first-year students, which might result in biased estimates. The research findings suggest that universities should provide more technological supports for both teachers and students, re-module subjects, ensure more realistic, justified, and unbiased assessment, stimulate teachers to interact with students respectfully and flexibly, take self-motivation in consideration in course design, and provide financial support in various forms for students. The research findings contribute to a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of online teaching and learning in the inevitable context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


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How to Cite

Cao, X. T., & Truong, T. D. (2022). Factors Affecting Students’ Perceived Outcomes and Satisfaction in Virtual Classrooms. Vietnam Journal of Education, 6(2), 161–171. https://doi.org/10.52296/vje.2022.167